Cultivation

“High-pressure fogging will become the standard in the market”

When Meteor Systems joined the North American market, growing on gutters wasn’t the standard there, but nowadays it is. Since optimizing production efficiency is a key point, more and more techniques are becoming common practice for growers,. To further help growers,  Meteor Systems have teamed up with MJ-Tech…

The importance of automation for cannabis and hemp growing

Cannabis production soon will be as sophisticated in its automation as any other large-scale consumer packaged goods industry, utilizing systems able to power rapidly…

TH: "Growing cannabis requires a lot of effort"

Growing cannabis for medical use in a controlled environment is costly and painstaking although the end result looks certain to be economically rewarding for the country,…

A conversation with Christopher Sloper, Fohse

"It is not about the lighting system only, but it's about the whole cultivation side of it"

“It is not about the lighting system only, but it is about the whole cultivation side of it,” says Christopher Sloper, chief horticultural officer with Fohse and author of the LED Grow Book. “Now, the industry is slowly coming to the understanding that LED lighting is superior with regards to many…

Mike McKee, Level Ten COO

"One of the keys to growing is simplification"

The question of standardization invokes numerous definitions meant to clarify what growers should strive for. Of course, the most important thing to understand is what “high-quality flower” really implies. “Growing cannabis can be easy if one does it at an amateur level,” says Mike McKee, Level Ten COO.…

US (CA): Cannabis farms are drying out water reserves in Humboldt County

In early September, the run of Supply Creek near Ken Norton's office on the Hoopa Valley Reservation has gone dry. The boulders and logs placed to create salmon and trout habitat lie bare under the sun. Norton, director of the Hoopa Valley Tribal Environmental Protection Agency and a member of the tribe,…

Technologies in cannabis cultivation reduces the impacts on climate change

Climate change is a serious issue that contributes to continuous shifts in the weather pattern as well as imposing threats to food production and many more. Although many tend to criticize the cultivation process of the cannabis industry, technological advancements have continued to aid in the reduction…

"A myth that just won't die," Glen Johnson

Does defoliation really improve a cannabis crop?

"Many cannabis growers are convinced that they can increase their crops by ripping all the leaves off the plant in the flower cycle," Glen Johnson, former lead cultivator with Happy Healing Farms, explains. "If you're a Scientist, it's called Abscission Stress. If a cow, deer, elk or grasshopper does it,…

How drought-resistant is cannabis?

Zambia just became the latest country to legalize cannabis cultivation, but there’s a catch: the southern African country is struggling with an unusual weather event that’s…

Danny Kush

Micro-climate management for cannabis greenhouse

Danny Kush is a cannabis grower who has been focusing on micro-climate management in greenhouses. “I am the greenhouse manager at Nature’s Alternative Farms,” he explains. “We grow in many different environments such as indoors, outdoors, and in greenhouses. As of now, I am focusing on our facility in…

Exploring different types of growing systems

In the latest edition of the LED Grow Book by Christopher Sloper, the author touches upon a variety of topics related to large-scale cannabis growing. One chapter specifically explores the different types of grow systems that can be used to grow cannabis. The first thing that the author points out is…

"Increased demand will likely drive the adoption of robotics"

Jason Rambo, Jodi Haines, and Cody Alter all have ownership in Alter Farms, a cannabis farm located in Grants Pass, Ore. Lugging blue totes filled with harvested cannabis crops against a blue Oregon sky, all-terrain vehicles buzz about carrying the fruits of their labor with an unspoken excitement – as…

George Johnson, Lift and Grow

"Sometimes, you need to lift grow lights to provide an even lighting"

Working in a large-scale cannabis facility can prove to be quite labor-intensive. Even though automation and efficiency are the key elements of any successful operation, there are some procedures that can be particularly hard on one’s body. For instance, if a cannabis operation grows its plants…

CAN (ON): 9-acres greenhouse expansion with water-cooled LEDs

Within a year after the start of the first cultivation, the successful cannabis grower Medisun from Ontario is expanding again by more than 9 acres. As in phase 1, Medisun has opted for water-cooled LED fixtures from Oreon. “This LED lighting offers exactly what we need,” according to Laust Dam, COO of…

CAN: Cannabis aquaponics facility to use coho salmon

A BC-based cannabis producer will be the first aquaponics cannabis facility to use coho salmon. Habitat Craft Cannabis has received a micro-cultivation licence from Health Canada, allowing them to cultivate craft cannabis and coho salmon at its fully constructed aquaponics facility in Chase, B.C…

IL: Growing cannabis halfway between the Red and the Dead Sea

CannArava is a medical cannabis company situated in a very peculiar location: right in the Arava desert, between the Red and the Dead Sea. The company holds a nursery license and a grow license. “Fortunately, the application process is not very complicated,” Eyal Policar with CannArava points out. “You…

Exploring greenhouse cannabis cultivation with Paul Selina

“When it comes to growing cannabis, there are some aspects which are still to be fully understood,” says Paul Selina with Pure SunFarms, during his talk at the ACT Summit in Las Vegas. Paul has been operating greenhouses for more than 25 years, and now, he is working with the almost 2.2 million sqft of…

Horticultural evolution is the prediction of cannabis grower

Licensed cannabis firm, the House of Green, has taken on a long-term lease of the site in Les Abreuveurs in St Sampson’s and is in discussions with several growers to keep the…

An automated integrated system for the cloning stage of cannabis

As the cannabis industry gets into the new year, the same old issues still need to be addressed. Consistency of the production has been indicated as one of the things that growers struggle the most with when entering into large-scale cannabis cultivation. However, this consistency problem does not start…

Resource Innovation Institute released a best practice guide for LED lighting for cannabis cultivation

Resource Innovation Center has released a new best practice guide about LED lighting for cannabis cultivation. "Any grower can turn on a light, but operating lighting for cultivation applications can be an art, while using lighting equipment efficiently can be a science," the guide reads.  In such a young…

US (MA): Harnessing the sun to generate energy for growing cannabis

Growing cannabis, an energy-intensive activity, is not easy to take “off the grid.” Yet that is what Solar Therapeutics is planning to do. This month the cannabis cultivation and retail company will turn on its microgrid, essentially giving Solar Therapeutics its own power plant, which will generate all…

The advantages of growing cannabis in the desert

When Mike Sassano, the founder of Solaris Farms, decided to root his business in Las Vegas, he did so for a variety of reasons. Initially, he settled on Nevada because the state is a limited license state. In other words, there’s less competition in the market. The state is also pro-business and…

Is NZ on the cusp of a hemp revolution?

In the 20 years since Pam Coleman has been on her 80-hectare rural property near Ngatimoti, north-west of Nelson, she has let the land take over. The golden hay meadows buzz with life, and kanuka and manuka have overtaken the gorse. The couple raise rare-breed sheep, grow olives and make cheese. When the…

PE: Peruvian University of Applied Science to research quality of MMJ in Peruvian market

The Peruvian University of Applied Sciences together with Futura Farms, a company dedicated to the development of cannabis products, will carry out scientific research on products made from medical cannabis that are currently on the Peruvian market. The latest CBD & Cannabis updates are now at your…

US (IL): large indoor hemp producer to apply for cannabis license

Mid-American Growers is cashing in on one of the most ancient crops known to man with its recent switch to hemp production. In addition, the business operators gave a…

IL: Israel to accelerate medical cannabis research with hi-tech incubator

OurCrowd, Perrigo, and BOL Pharma, announced that the consortium they established won the tender issued by the Israel Innovation Authority to operate CanNegev, a medical…

US (NM): New Mexico’s hemp growers still waiting to strike gold

New Mexico farmers eager to cash in on the hemp craze the first year they could legally plant the crop say it did not pan out. “It was like a gold rush,” said James Johnson, a Columbus area farmer. His Carzalia Valley family farm and produce company is famous for its sweet onions, but, this year, he also…

US (AZ): Cannabis growers talk medical benefits with seniors in advance of launching local dispensary, cultivation site

Employees of an Arizona cannabis company interested in setting up shop in the area held a meet-and-greet at the South County Senior Center on Wednesday to answer questions about how a particular plant can relieve some of the pains and conditions that come with age. Harvest Inc. is interested in opening a…

“Cleanliness is one of the most important things in cannabis operations”

A tour of a Las Vegas based cannabis indoor facility

Harvest is just finished at the Las Vegas facility of 1933 Industries, and that means it’s time for a thorough cleaning of the grow rooms. But also during the growing season the company keeps a clear eye out on the internal organization. CEO Chris Rebentisch explains how, growing in the desert, they have…

CAN (NB): New Brunswick growers want to shift to growing cannabis indoors

People are usually pretty protective about what goes on in their neighbourhood, so a couple's proposal to open a cannabis facility on their own property in Coverdale, New Brunswick, has the neighbours talking. They've received a letter about the potential re-zoning needed to enable the project proposed…

Lesotho wants to export its cannabis to the world

Kekeletso Lekaota spends her work days nurturing rows of cannabis plants for harvest. Pruning a few yellowed leaves from stems with thick, flowering heads, she says the job…

Theodore Huggins, grower

"The difference between growing at a pH of 5.5 and of 6.2 has an enormous impact on a crop”

It’s not the most riveting subject in horticulture but if you don’t pay attention to pH, it can cost you a customer. Every grower knows that pH needs to stay between 5.5-6.5 in hydroponics because certain compounds can only be absorbed by plants at this level.  "Many cannabis growers believe that by adding…

Eduardo Casas, GVB Biopharma

"Colombia is one of the best growing environments for cannabis"

2019 has been a big year for the medical cannabis world, a lot of huge investments and growth happened on the heels of continued legalization efforts across the globe. Though the market showed some issues in the latter parts of the year when several large producers went public with massive losses. It is…

Increasing density in your canopy

One goal all growers seem to agree on is the need to increase density in their houses. How that gets done, well, there are a variety of ways and here’s one way a grower chose to do it: With 45,000 square feet of greenhouse space, Nathan Fumia, a cannabis grower and consultant for a commercial operation…

US (NE): Local farm to add hemp to crop lines

The team at Western Farms hopes to make industrial hemp easier for local producers to add to their crop line up. Industrial hemp is used for a variety of products from CBD oil and health foods to paper, textiles and biodegradable plastics. Currently, the Western Farms had 750 hemp plants in three…

US (NV): Association of Nevada testing labs wants state to release unredacted data

An association of cannabis testing labs is calling on the state to release unredacted data from Nevada’s seed-to-sale tracking system amid assertions that certain unidentified…

US (NE): Hemp crop destroyed after tests reveal too much THC

One of 10 growers granted hemp licenses this year from the Nebraska Department of Agriculture was forced to shred their crop Nov. 26 because of the too-high THC level it produced. The licensed growers, Justin and Hilari Courtney, are from Richardson County. The department reported that of the other nine…

US (NY): Part of massive Putnam County greenhouse may add cannabis

Putnam County Board heard this week from Mid-American Growers, formerly known as Color Point, about a request to amend existing county ordinances to allow the growing of medical and recreational cannabis. In advance of the Jan. 1 legalization of recreational cannabis, many Illinois businesses are gearing…

US (CO): Hemp samples are going to be sent into space

Front Range Biosciences, an agricultural technology company focused on breeding and nursery production of new plant varieties and seeds for the hemp and coffee industries, announced their partnership with SpaceCells USA Inc. and BioServe Space Technologies at the University of Colorado, Boulder to send…

Paskal DrainVision Floor-Scale

"Following the online water content in the substrate will improve irrigation efficiency significantly"

Optimal irrigation strategy throughout the day and along the growing period requires a deep understanding of the growing substrate, plant physiology and the water uptake by the plant. In some cases, improper irrigation practice is implemented, accompanied with excess or shortage of water. "Early…

US (NY): Greenhouse, residents clash on noise, lights & odor

Wheatfield Gardens came under attack by several residential property owners in the Timberlakes Subdivision during a recent public hearing in the Town of Wheatfield. Wheatfield Gardens, at 7241 Shawnee Road, grows industrial hemp – a process its neighbors say creates noise, odor, and inordinate amounts of…

US (IL): Cresco Labs announces first harvest from Illinois’ largest cultivation facility

Cresco Labs, a vertically integrated multistate cannabis operator in the United States, today announced that it has completed its first harvest from its expanded cultivation facility in Lincoln, IL. With the recent growth of the state’s medical market and adult-use legalization going live on January 1st,…

New software for seed-to-sale ERP

Priority Software has announced that GL Brands has implemented Priority Cannabis ERP, a comprehensive seed-to-sale ERP software solution, to effectively manage the entire…

CAN (AB): Edmonton man pursues Health Canada permit to open craft cannabis grow operation

Rob Simonowits had a medical cannabis licence prior to the legalization of cannabis and just got word that he is now approved to move forward with his application to grow up to 2,100 square feet of cannabis for the legal recreational market. That is roughly the maximum growth allowed for a “micro”…

US (GA): Hemp grower surpasses expectations with first harvest

Outdoor growing can be quite a challenge, since growers are dependent on a lot of factors they have little to no control over, so it's always nice when a harvest surpasses expectations. Village Fields Hemp is an outdoor hemp grower who have with the support of Village Farms recently completed their first…

CAN (ON): Thrive Cannabis to expand indoor capacity and convert outdoor harvest into concentrates

Thrive Cannabis, a federally-licensed producer of cannabis, based in Simcoe, Ontario, today provided a company update on its facilities, operations and expansion plans. To…

Durability of anti-reflective glass coverings

Nowadays anti-reflective (AR) permanent coating is becoming more and more prevalent on glass products for the use in greenhouses to maximize the daylight transmittance. Saint-Gobain recently published a white paper in which the company highlights the huge gap of durability between different technical…

US (OR): Growers struggle as hemp harvest winds down

Ajit Singh strode across his 16-acre hemp field toward a broken-down harvester. He'd been hoping all day that the mechanic, now crouched beside the machine, could get it back up and running. It was late October and Singh still had thousands of stinky green and purple cannabis plants across 425 acres to…

"Preserving trichomes and limiting expense are not mutually exclusive

Hand-trimming has been compared to potato peeling: A rite of passage for entry-level employees and integral to product success. Long days and tedious work that results in sticky hands make trimming one of the cannabis industry’s least favorite jobs. While machines exist to automate the process, many of…

US (WY): Wyoming tribe considering MMJ to diversify reservation economy

A Wyoming tribe is looking to hemp and medical marijuana as potential ways to bolster the Wind River Reservation economy and treat illnesses, an approach more and more tribes view as potentially lucrative. In late September, the Eastern Shoshone Tribe’s General Council voted to approve a resolution to…

US (LA): Hemp meeting draws crowd

About 500 people attended an LSU AgCenter meeting Nov. 13 to find out about the potential of growing industrial hemp as a cash crop. Experts advised that the commodity can generate income, but they warned that it’s not without risk. Hemp has several uses. It can be grown for CBD oil that has therapeutic…

US: DEA finalizes plan to grow 3.2M grams of cannabis in 2020

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) finalized its plans to authorize the cultivation of 3,200,000 grams of cannabis for research purposes next year—a 30 percent increase from 2019’s quota. DEA initially proposed 2020 production quotas in a notice published in the Federal Register in September. This…

US: New research shows flushing plants before harvest may be unnecessary

The results of a new research trial released this month show that flushing plants before harvest may not improve the quality of cannabis flower. The results seem to contradict…

Balance between the production and the usage of assimilates

First of all … what are assimilates? Assimilates, also known as glucose, are the product of the process of photosynthesis. The produced assimilates are used for plant growth, as they are converted into new plant tissue, for instance. This means that the available amount of assimilates is directly related…

Kyle Moffitt, STEM Cultivation CEO

"Growing medical cannabis is nothing but manufacturing THC or CBD from biomass"

Generally speaking, growing for the recreational market is different than growing for the medical one. Indeed, growing medical cannabis should follow very strict standards, as patients are going to be the end-customers. However, many cannabis growers struggle with complying with such high standards, and…

JM: MMJ, a new horizon for small Jamaican growers

Rules are not made to be broken. The principles that underpin the development and use of therapies from cannabis are not to be “juggled”. Globally, we are now seeing the calamity caused by breaking these rules. The list of examples is long. These include using cheaper, fake ingredients in products,…

Exploring indoor cultivation

Originally practiced out of necessity, indoor cultivation has become the go-to for producers who see the benefits for large-scale operations. Indoor cultivation started as illicit grows in garages, spare rooms, or backyard greenhouses. But as the industry matured, savvy growers developed a preference for the approach, for very…

CAN: CannTrust whistleblower reveals video of alleged illegal grow room

The whistleblower who brought the illegal cannabis scandal at Ontario-based licenced producer CannTrust to light has come forward with new video allegedly showing the company’s biggest unlicenced grow room in operation in January. Nick Lalonde worked at CannTrust from July 2017 to May of this year. The…

Chad M. Black, founder and CEO of White Buffalo:

"When dealing with such large operations, you want to reduce labor and prioritize efficiency”

The majority of hemp farmers grow their plants outdoors. However, unlike other plants, cannabis is known to absorb the toxins from the soil. At the same time, growing outdoors means that plants are particularly susceptible to uncontrollable environmental conditions, and to pest pressure. These are just…

US (CO): Cross-pollination between cannabis and hemp is a budding conflict at outdoor grows

Outdoor marijuana growers are reporting an increase in cross-pollination from hemp farms, a development that could mean marijuana cultivators might lose upwards of tens of thousands of dollars if their plants become unmarketable as flower products. As the marijuana and hemp industries increasingly share…

"This is a knowledge-based business where there is not much knowledge at the moment"

“It is of the utmost importance to plan everything in advance, and to do the math,” says Jason Crockett, founder of OG Medicinals and of Crockett Consulting. “There are a lot of mistakes that rookie growers make when entering this industry. There are many aspects to take into consideration when setting…

Pipp Horticulture

"We are seeing a big shift from single level HPS cultivation to multi-level LED"

Cultivating high quality medical and/or recreational cannabis creates many challenges for experienced and novice growers. Just as any other agricultural or medicinal crop, consistency of trait expression from batch to batch is critical for operators and consumers. However, achieving such consistency…

Optimal cannabis growth using gas sensing

Using modified atmospheres is a popular way to improve crop yields. This involves growing crops in an atmosphere that has been changed deliberately to control the concentrations of certain gases. This method is commonly used to help improve crop quality and as a way of preserving products during…

Robinsons Outdoor Grow

CAN (NS): Auxly announces outdoor cultivation expansion

Auxly Cannabis Group Inc., together with its wholly owned subsidiary Robinsons Cannabis Inc., announced Robinsons Outdoor Grow, a large scale, outdoor cultivation project located in the heart of Nova Scotia’s wine region of Annapolis Valley.  Robinsons OG is located in a region that is ideal for outdoor cannabis…

AU: First crop of cannabis to produce medical products at Southport harvested

The first crop of cannabis to produce medicinal cannabis products in the Gold Coast has been harvested. The bud was trimmed at THC Global Group's hydroponic facility in Bundaberg, where it'll be dried and packed, ready for extraction. In the below video THC Global CEO Ken Charteris talks about the…

US (CA): The California desert town where cannabis is the last hope

Mayor Chuck McGuire wants his lake back. When McGuire was a kid growing up here in California City in the early 1970s, back when speculators still believed they could sell all…

Levin Amweg, Cannerald

"Quality doesn't seem to matter in the cannabis industry"

“Quality doesn’t seem to matter in the cannabis industry,” Levin Amweg provocatively says. “A large number of growers do not take care of marketing products that align with the pharmaceutical standards of the industry. This results in huge quantities of cannabis products sent back because they were not…

CAN (ON): Site plan for micro cannabis farm approved in Kingsville

Another craft cannabis grower could be coming to Kingsville. Council on Tuesday voted approved the site plan for a 5,700 sq. ft. micro cultivation facility on County Road 8…

Christian O. Hollensen, OC Care

“We want to be the first producer of organically grown cannabis in Denmark”

The medical cannabis market in Denmark is growing very quickly, so growers are looking for ways to differentiate themselves. OC Care ApS is looking to be the first organic grower of medical cannabis in Denmark. Christian O. Hollensen: “There are a lot of big players in the market, many Canadian companies…

How Plant Raisers Ltd are taking propagation ‘Off Grid’

Producing seedlings in an off-grid LED lit vertical farming facility

Plant Raisers Ltd, the largest propagator of glasshouse salad crops in the UK, has in addition to a recent expansion of its conventional glasshouse facility, partnered with sister company IGrowing Ltd to develop a system to produce seedlings using an off-grid LED lit vertical farming facility. Eliminating…

"Balancing irrigation and evaporation to create optimal conditions for the root zone"

Water balanceWhen talking about Plant Empowerment, Hoogendoorn Growth Management means using the information the plant provides to guide your growing processes. An important part of Plant Empowerment is balancing various elements of the growing process. One such element that needs to be balanced is water…

NZ: Growing cannabis in Marlborough, a "melting pot of natural resources"

Marlborough's "melting pot" of natural resources, local expertise and older demographic gives it global advantages as a medicinal cannabis growing area, a researcher says.  Medicinal cannabis company Puro plans to start commercial cultivation at two Marlborough sites as soon as the "law allows", and its crowdfunding…

A matter of standard: discussing the challenges of the industry with Juriën Koster

Initially, every newly born sector undergoes an ‘adjustment period’, during which many pressing issues are addressed. The same thing can be said with regards to the cannabis industry: freshly coming out of prohibition times, growers found themselves in a highly regulated industry where high quality and…

CAN: Canadian growers harvest their first outdoor plants

Alison Gordon’s reasons for growing outside — rather than in an indoor, hydroponic setting — were primarily cost-driven. Gordon is CEO of Toronto-based 48North Cannabis Corp.,…

The race to breed 0% THC cannabis

This fall, for the first time since 1970, growers throughout the United States were set to harvest federally legal hemp. Growers had purchased seeds and tended fields throughout the summer. But toward the end of the growing season, many of them realized that their plants weren’t turning out as expected —…

CAN (BC): High expectation for Delta cannabis grower

It’s a huge complex commuters see as they drive down Highway 10 in East Ladner daily, but what many may not realize is that it’s positioning itself to become one of the biggest players in the Canadian legal recreational marijuana market. Receiving the necessary federal approvals, the Village Farms…

A survey to shed light on common cannabis cultivation best practices

Information is incredibly valuable in a young industry like medical cannabis cultivation, especially when it comes to growing practices. Sadly, a lot of good growing information is hidden behind NDA’s or secrecy, and so it can be quite difficult to find out how to properly handle your crop. This is also…

FunCrops, Portuguese cannabis grower

"We have been carrying out the design of the facility and of the SOPs from a GMP standpoint"

Portugal has always been one of the leading countries in Europe when it comes to drug policy. On 15 July 2018, the Portuguese parliament approved cannabis for therapeutic use. The country represents a good place to start a medical cannabis operation, because of the good regulatory framework and because…

Arjan Kunst, CEO Seed Processing Holland

“We aim to bring our 50+ years of experience in vegetable and flower seed processing into the hemp and cannabis seed market”

The issue of standardization within the hemp and cannabis industry is not only related to the end product. Commonly accepted standards for growing still have to be outlined, but standard-related problems might arise also with regards to another aspect of the sector: that is, seeds. A number of hemp…

CAN (BC): Concerns over cannabis facility plan for Westsyde

ALR land adjacent to the Dunes golf course is slated to become home to a large-scale cannabis production facility Agricultural land in Westsyde is being prepped for…

Eric Poot, Wageningen University & Research

NL: "If botrytis gets into the crop, the damage can be massive"

In a recent episode of the Dutch TV program De Monitor, host Teun van de Keuken explored the Dutch cannabis industry after a consumer expressed concerns about the quality of the cannabis being sold in Dutch coffeeshops. Because of the construction surrounding the legal sale of cannabis in the…

US (AZ): University of Arizona Cooperative Extension department conducting CBD hemp variety trials in the desert

Now that hemp is legal to cultivate in Arizona, University of Arizona growers are coming to the university extension office and asking them what varieties they should grow. Yet they just don’t have a good answer to give them right now. Their growing slots are different than Canada, Colorado, and the…

Culta talks about the challenges of indoor and outdoor cultivation

US (MD): Keeping intruders out, both indoors and outdoors

One of the first clean green “organic” producers on the East Coast is Culta, a vertically-integrated cannabis operation that has both indoor and outdoor grows. “We have a 20,000 sq. ft. indoor facility, and a 1-acre outdoor organic cultivation,” says Mackie, Culta CEO. IndoorGrowing medical cannabis…

US (CA): Early UC hemp research already yielding results

For the first time ever, UC Agriculture and Natural Resources (UC ANR) researchers harvested an industrial hemp crop at one of its nine research and extension centers this fall. “It's an interesting crop,” said UC Cooperative Extension specialist Bob Hutmacher. “There is a tremendous amount of research…

Cannabis consistency: it all begins with a clear taxonomic structure

In the modern cannabis industry, consistency doesn’t exist. In part, this is due to the more than 400 chemical compounds that appear in different combinations, proportions, and amounts based on the particular environment in which a plant is cultivated. But a greater issue is at work: No taxonomic…


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